During the long and short rains that fall in the area between March to May, and again from October to December, lions spend much time outside Nairobi National Park. In these times, they make their way to the Kitengela Conservation Area to the south. This seasonal migration historically has disrupting the local Maasai communities and their livestock. The conflict between wildlife and human inhabitants has recently been worsened by a long drought experienced in the area.
The most common human wildlife conflicts in the Kitengela area are livestock predation, loss of agricultural crops due to damage by wildlife, competition between livestock and wildlife for pasture and water, and hosting and transmission of major livestock diseases by wild animals. Changing land use practices, increasing human population, land sub-division, and increased levels of cultivation have accelerated the above conflicts.
To reduce these conflicts, The Wildlife Foundation instituted the Consolation Program to pay for livestock losses by lion predation in 2003.
Through the Consolation Program, consolation money is payable to any livestock owner whose specified domestic animal has been killed by specified predator(s). Domestic animals eligible for consolation are cows, sheep, goats, and donkeys, while the specified predators are lions, leopards, cheetahs, and crocodiles. Consolation money is paid to pastoralists whose livestock were killed on their titled land.
The consolation scheme began encompassing the areas adjacent to Nairobi National Park. Since its inception, the consolation scheme has grown to be operational in Kitengela, Sholinge, Oloosirkon and Empakasi sub-locations. These areas are critical to the survival of Nairobi National Park and its animals, and the Maasai landowners were very eager to have the pilot scheme implemented on their land.